Doctor or Doctress?

Explore American history through the eyes of women physicians

An American Women’s Hospital doctor (in hat and “AWH” armband) administers a shot to a local woman in Jellico, Tennessee. The AWH had a mobile health clinic that included vaccinations and inoculations as part of their service to the rural Appalachian region of the United States. The AWH car is visible in the background behind a young woman.)

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The American Women’s Hospitals at Home: Public Health in Depression-Era Appalachia

The American Women’s Hospitals (AWH) was founded by women physicians in 1918 to provide medical care to the people of war-torn France during World War I. AWH subsequently established hospitals in other parts of Europe and Western Asia, continuing to provide medical care to devastated populations after the wars and conflicts had officially ended. In the 1930s, the AWH established itself in the rural, mountainous, Southern Highlands of the United States, in a region known today as Appalachia. Even before the Depression, Appalachia was a relatively impoverished region, and was geographically isolated with few roads or means of transportation in or out of the area. The economic crisis of the Great Depression only increased the severity of the region’s existing poverty and lack of quality education and healthcare. The AWH established a mobile health clinic, and launched a wide-ranging/multi-faceted public health and health education program to combat the region’s rampant health problems, which included malnutrition-related diseases (such as Pellagra) and highly contagious and potentially fatal diseases such as typhoid, tuberculosis, and diphtheria.

This photo depicts how the AWH had to provide medical care where it could in Appalachia – in this case, the physician is vaccinating people outside. The group gathered is a mix of African American and white women and children.

Creator: American Women's Hospitals

Language: english

Item Number: a144_199

Pages: 1

Size: 17.9 x 12.8 cm

Physical Collection: Records of American Women`s Hospitals 1917-1982, ACC-144

Finding Aid:

Cite this source: Title of document, date. The American Women’s Hospitals at Home: Public Health in Depression-Era Appalachia. Doctor or Doctress?: Explore American history through the eyes of women physicians. The Legacy Center, Drexel University College of Medicine Archives & Special Collections. Philadelphia, PA. Date of access.

American Women's Hospitals


Rural health services

Jellico (Tn.)

Appalachian Region, Southern