Doctor or Doctress?

Explore American history through the eyes of women physicians

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Photo taken at the refugee camps on the island of Macronissi, Greece after the evacuation of Smyrna (Izmir), Turkey.

Why It Matters

In 1922, the American Women's Hospitals (AWH) established services on Macronissi to care for the refugees from Smyrna. The organization photographed the refugee situation in order to document the severity and scope of the crisis, and the AWH’s role in alleviating it. Photographs like this one were often later published in brochures created by the AWH to raise money to continue their work. The photograph illustrates the vast number of women and children refugees. AWH published photographs like this to raise awareness in America about what was happening, and to appeal for more money and support to continue their work among the refugees and improve conditions.

Analyze this evidence

  • Describe who you see in each of these photos. Who are they?
  • What are they doing? Why?
  • Why do you think AWH photographed these particular people for their brochure?